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Thursday, 4 July 2019

Types of Network Topology

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Network Topology is the schematic description of a network arrangement, connecting various nodes(sender and receiver) through lines of connection.


Bus Topology :

​Bus topology is a network type in which every computer and network device is connected to single cable. It transmits the data from one end to another in single direction. No bi-directional feature is in bus topology.

Advantages of Bus Topology
  1.     It is cost effective.
  2.     Cable required is least compared to other network topology.
  3.     Used in small networks.
  4.     It is easy to understand.
  5.     Easy to expand joining two cables together.
Disadvantages of Bus Topology
  1.     Cables fails then whole network fails.
  2.     If network traffic is heavy or nodes are more the performance of the network decreases.
  3.     Cable has a limited length.
  4.     It is slower than the ring topology.

RING Topology

It is called ring topology because it forms a ring as each computer is connected to another computer, with the last one connected to the first. Exactly two neighbors for each device.

Advantages of this topology :
  1.     The possibility of collision is minimum in this type of topology.
  2.     Cheap to install and expand.
Problems with this topology :
  1.     Troubleshooting is difficult in this topology.
  2.     Addition of stations in between or removal of stations can disturb the whole topology.

STAR Topology

In this type of topology all the computers are connected to a single hub through a cable. The hub is the central node and all others nodes are connected to the central node.

Advantages of Star Topology
  1.     Fast performance with few nodes and low network traffic.
  2.     Hub can be upgraded easily.
  3.     Easy to troubleshoot.
  4.     Easy to setup and modify.
  5.     Only that node is affected which has failed, rest of the nodes can work smoothly.

Disadvantages of Star Topology
  1.     Cost of installation is high.
  2.     Expensive to use.
  3.     If the hub fails then the whole network is stopped because all the nodes depend on the hub.
  4.     Performance is based on the hub that is it depends on its capacity

Mesh Topology :

In mesh topology, every device is connected to another device via particular channel.

Advantages of this topology :

  1.     It is robust.
  2.     Fault is diagnosed easily. Data is reliable because data is transferred among the devices through dedicated channels or links.
  3.     Provides security and privacy.

Problems with this topology :
  1.     Installation and configuration is difficult.
  2.     Cost of cables are high as bulk wiring is required, hence suitable for less number of devices.
  3.     Cost of maintenance is high.

TREE Topology

It has a root node and all other nodes are connected to it forming a hierarchy. It is also called hierarchical topology. It should at least have three levels to the hierarchy.

Advantages of Tree Topology
  1.     Extension of bus and star topologies.
  2.     Expansion of nodes is possible and easy.
  3.     Easily managed and maintained.
  4.     Error detection is easily done.

Disadvantages of Tree Topology

  1.     Heavily cabled.
  2.     Costly.
  3.     If more nodes are added maintenance is difficult.
  4.     Central hub fails, network fails.

HYBRID Topology

It is two different types of topologies which is a mixture of two or more topologies. For example if in an office in one department ring topology is used and in another star topology is used, connecting these topologies will result in Hybrid Topology (ring topology and star topology).


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